hello friends, do you know the proof for 0!=1?
here it is...

0! = 1?
n!/((n-n)!n!) = 1
(n-n)! = n!/n!
0! = 1
Another method
n! = (n+1) ! / (n+1)

7! = 8!/8
6! = 7!/7
0! = 1!/1 =1

2 power 0?

yeah friends, for many year anything to the power zero is one...
do you know the proof?.... now here it is for you....

20 = 1 …………………….?
     Log 20= log x
   0*log 2=log x
              0=log x
Antilog 0= x
           1=x or x=1

Another method:



Since the end of the 80's, Raphael from Plant Solar imagines and dreams to achieve a world tour while using a minimum of energy. He first imagines achieving it with the help of an amphibious microlight.
In 2003, with the partners of the company Horus Networks, they are the first in the world to propose to their clients a Web hosting and solar-energy powered electronic mails.
It is in 2004 that Raphael thinks about achieving the first tour of the world in a solar boat. At that time, it is not yet fashionable. He will thus have to first convince the future sponsors and the schools. To do this, he brings together and motivates a team of enthusiasts ready to follow him in this adventure.
Today, more than 100 persons are working, across the world, for the PlanetSolar project...


PlanetSolar is a multlihull vessel topped by a large array of photovoltaic solar panels, constructed by Knierim Yacht Club, in Kiel, Germany. Built in 14 months, the biggest solar boat ever built has impressive dimensions and is yet both silent and clean. The goal is to navigate around the world at an average speed of 7.5 knots - no mean feat for a solar-powered craft.
The multihull will be home to four sailors during the round-the-world attempt, and can accommodate up to forty people during the promotional trips planned at each port of call.
The ideal shape and size of the boat for the chosen route will be determined by in-depth research. The PlanetSolar engineers have to factor in a host of parameters - propulsion, solar panel design, energy storage, materials, and the external environment. A whole range of studies will need to be conducted in areas such as the boat's hydro and aerodynamics, the materials used, the management and storage of energy and, finally, the power plant and the optimal routing. A concentration of futuristic technology

planetsolar is a catamaran that runs solely on energy found in light. The additional removable parts allow it to expose a total of 537 sq.m of photovoltaic surface(solar panels) to the sun. This impressive data make it the biggest solar run ship in the world.
  • Length: 31 m
  • Width: 15 m
  • Length with flaps: 35 m
  • Width with flaps: 23 m
  • Height: 6.1 m
  • Weight: 95 t
  • Surface of solar modules: 537 sq.m
  • PV installed power: 93.5 kW(127.0HP)
  • Average engine consumption: 20 KW(26.8 HP)
  • Average speed: 7.5 Kt(14 km/h)
  • Maximum speed : 14 kt( 25 km/h)
  • Crew: 6 people
  • People that can go onboard: 40
  • Autonomy: Never-ending solar navigation.

Round the world in 160 days
In 2011, the first round-the-world trip powered by solar energy will be realized, with stopovers along the equator, where the maximum amount of sunlight is available. The over 50,000-km voyage will last 160 days, for an average speed of 7.5 knots. PlanetSolar's six-men crew will cross the Atlantic Ocean, the Panama Canal, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and finally the Suez Canal, to return to the Mediterranean. After a roadshow with the village that will cross Switzerland in 2009, the boat will stop in cities like New-York, San Francisco, Singapour and Abu-Dhabi.

The stopovers (Miami, Cancun, San Francisco, Sydney, Singapour, Abu Dhabi) will be organised in large port cities; they will give the project a high profile, and will be used as a promotional platform for renewable energies, especially solar.


hi friends,
"Books are the important and interesting part of once life, which i missed till now, but I don't wanna lose it anymore" i thought this after reading the book " One night @ call center" by Chetan Bhogat, the one who made not only me but the whole India to read his books as no once book ever before....
Through the story he says, that the success is in 4 things,

  • Intelligence
  • Imagination
  • Self-confidence
  • Failure 
 And the Romance in that story proves that he got "love marriage"....

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i am happy to say that i and my friend saravana pandian won the first prize in the Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi...i would like to share that papers abstract with you all...

-life is priceless, life protection is cheap.
Right from the splendid starting of 2010 to July 19, 2010, Hundreds of precious lives have been taken from our mother INDIA, in thirteen train accidents. The Gyaneshwari Express train derailment and Sainthia train collision are the two major accidents this year, which killed 223 passengers….
Trying to be responsible citizens of this nation, here we propose a design to reduce these accidents.
“Few can foresee whither their road will lead them, till they come to its end.”
-J.R.R. Tolkien (English Writer)
The main drawback with locomotive system in use is, even if the pilot identifies any problem in the rails, he needs at least 500 meters to stop the train using emergency braking systems, which is practically impossible. So, we send our ROVER 500 meters ahead of the train to check for any obstacles or damages found in the track (rail) using sensors and intimate to the train as well as to the nearest station via Radio Frequency with the help of a microcontroller.


recently we had soft skill training in my college.... in that my trainer was asking question to all, one by one and we should go front to answer his question... in that session one interesting answer was given by my friend saravana pandian... i would like to share that with everyone because it is a good example for innovation..
the question is "what would be your answer, if GOD comes and allows you to ask 3 wishes to him.."
he went to the stage and gave a very innovative answer, he said
"1. i wanna be immortal
 2.transfer all your powers to me
 3.resign your job"
what you say now to this answer....

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Sun&Moon, good&bad, white&black, angle&devil,....... none could beat this pair....can you guess who are they?...its TOM & JERRY.. can you say that you don't know this pair?... don't you smile when on hearing the name TOM  and JERRY...

With the help of WILLIAM HANNA and JOSEPH BARBERA, came from world of imagination as JASPER(cat) & JINX(mouse), soon transformed into TOM & JERRY.... Millions of people around the world are fans for them....aren't you love it?....

It's a cat and mouse game... seventy years ago, two characters came into being and they have had the undivided attention of viewers since then. It's Tom and Jerry! This American animated series created by William Hanna and Joseph Barbera for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer centres on the perpetual rivalry between a cat and a mouse- Tom and Jerry... Here's wishing them many more years of fun and a lot more adventure too!...

Wanna Lock your system?......

Here is a way to lock your system ,and take away the key along with you, so that no one can enter your system,even with your password. But except with your key...
I don't mean you to buy a good lock at the shop. Just your U.S.B. can act as the key. But you need to install a program PREDATOR. you can get it from...
Just download it, install it... while installing it will ask for the U.S.B. drive... at that time insert you insert your U.S.B. drive in its port... Thats all, after completing the installation, remove the U.S.B... Then when ever you need to open window, just insert the U.S.B. drive to the port... The window will run the predator and take the key from the U.S.B....
you could ask... even win key+L will lock the system.. But if some one knew your password.. then they can easily enter into your system... but now with out U.S.B. even you cannot enter into the windowsssss....


hi friends,
In Recent years,the LCD is finding widespread use replacing LEDs. everyone would like to have it in their project to attract the visitors. similarly we too had it in our project "Power On Coin", But we made a very small, tiny mistake while interfacing and we spend nearly a week to identify that problem. But, we learned many things about LCDs in that week, that's here
 All LCD will have minimum of 14 pins, some may have few more for back LED lights. knowledge of these 14 pins is enough to interface LCD. let we have a look at those 14 pins.


VSS:ground pin     VDD:+5v supply pin

VEE:contrast pin, by adjusting the supply to this pin we can get clarity in the display.
 NOTE: never give full 5V supply, vary it with a variable resistor(pot:10k)
RS: this register will say the LCD whether the information is command or data.
we would like to control the cursor in the display like clearing, moving the cursor in the display, entry mode, etc. this could be done through passing command by Rs=0->we can inform the LCD the information is command. respectively command words and codes are shown.
while we are passing data we should have Rs=1.
R/W:we are suppose to inform the LCD, whether the information is to be read or written on the LCD. this pin will do that work.
R/W=1->read mode
R/w=0->write mode
ENABLE PIN:very important pin of all, only when pass high to low signal to this pin, the command/data will be latched into LCD. But should have at least 450ns gap between setting and clearing this pin. because the micro controller may be working at MHz but our LCD will be working at KHz . so, we need to apply some delay else the date will not be proper.
E line is negative edge triggered- to write
E line is positive edge triggered- to read

D7-D0:information should be sent/received only through pin only this is data pin. ASCII key values of the corresponding character or command should be alone sent/received through this pin.
these are those 14 pins.
  • First we should configure the LCD,so we need to pass the command code. Don't send all, send only which are required.
Load D7-D0 with command code
Rs=0; to inform it is command
R/W=0; we are going to write it
E=1; to set E high
delay: to match the speed [450 ns]
E=0; low to latch the data
  • Then we can pass the information 
Load D7-D0 with data
Rs=0; to inform it is word
R/W=0/1; depends on us, whether we would like to read or write
E=1; to set E high-write/low-read
delay: to match the speed [450 ns]
E=0; low to latch the data/high to read

we are using delay, because the LCD need time to do some internal operation. but we cannot import exact delay, so it may slow down the process. so by using Busy flag we can over come this problem.
here, we use Rs=0 to check the busy flag bit to see if the LCD is ready to receive information. Thus busy flag is D7 and can be read when R/W=1 and Rs=0, as follows: if R/W=1, Rs=0. when D7 =1, the LCD is busy taking case of internal operations and will not accept any new information. when D7=0, the LCD is ready to receive new information.
It is better to use busy flag, rather than imparting delay everywhere use of Busy flag will make the program to run faster.
NOTE: one important thing here is, we need to send low to high signal to enable pin. since we are reading.
  • sending commands and data to LCDs with a time delay
;calls a time delay before sending next data/command
;p1.0-p1.7 are connected to LCD data pin D0-D7
;p2.0 is connected to Rs pin of LCd
;p2.1 is connected to R/W pin of LCD
;p2.2 is connected to E pin of LCD
    org 0000H
    mov a,#38H    ;init. LCD 2 lines, 5X7 matrix
    acall comwrt    ;call command subroutine
    acall delay    ;give LCD some time
    mov a,#0EH    ;display on,cursor on
    acall comnwrt    ;call command subroutine
    acall delay    ;give LCD some time
    mov a,#01    ;clear LCD
    acall comnwrt    ;call command subroutine
    acall delay     ;give LCD some time
    mov a,#06H    ;shift cursor right
    acall cmnwrt    ;call command subroutine
    acall delay    ;give LCD some time
    mov a,#'h'    ;display letter h
    acall datawrt    ;call display subroutine
    acall delay     ;give LCD sometime
    mov a,#'i'    ;display letter i
    acall datawrt     ;call display subroutine
again:    sjmp again    ;stay here

comnwrt:        ;send command to LCD
           mov p1,a    ;copy reg a to port1
           clr p2.0    ;Rs=0 for command
           clr p2.1    ;R/W=0 for write
          setb p2.2    ;E=1 for high pulse
          acall delay    ;give LCD some time
         clr p2.2    ;give LCD some time
         RET        ;return
datawrt:        ;write data to LCD
           mov p1,a    ;copy reg a to port1
           setb p2.0    ;Rs=1 for data
           clr p2.1    ;R/W=0 for write
           setb p2.2    ;E=1 for high pulse
           acall delay    ;give LCD some time
           clr p2.2    ;E=0 for high to low pulse
            ret        ;return

delay:    mov r3,#50    ;50 or higher for fast CPUs
here2:   mov r4,#255    ;r4=255
here:     Djnz r4,here    ;stay until r4 becomes 0
            Djnz r3,here2    ;stay until r3 becomes 0
            return        ;return

  • sending commands and data to LCDs using busy flag  
 ;check busy flag before sending data,command to LCD
;p1=data pin, p2.0=Rs,p2.1=R/W,p2.2=E pins
    mov a,#38H    ;init LCD 2 lines,5x7 matrix
    acall command     ;issue command
    mov a,#0EH    ;LCd on, cursor on
    acall command    ;issue command
    mov a,#01H    ;clear LCD command
    acall command    ;issue command
    mov a,#06H    ;shift cursor right
    acall command    ;issue command
    mov a,#86H    ;cursor: line 1,pos 6
    acall command    ;issue command
    mov a,#'h'    ;display letter h
    acall data_dispaly     ;issue data
    mov a,#'i'    ;diaplay letter i
    acall data_display    ;issue data
here:    sjmp here    ;stay here

    acall ready     ;is LCD ready?
    mov p1,a    ;issue command code
    clr p2.0    ;Rs=0 for command
    clr p2.1    ;R/W=0 for write
    setb p2.2    ;E=1 for high pulse
    clr p2.2    ;give LCD some time
    RET        ;return

    acall ready    ;is LCD ready?
    mov p1,a    ;copy reg a to port1
    setb p2.0    ;Rs=1 for data
    clr p2.1    ;R/W=0 for write
    setb p2.2    ;E=1 for high pulse
    clr p2.2    ;E=0 for high to low pulse
    ret        ;return  

    setb p1.7    ;make p1.7 input port
    clr p2.0    ;Rs=0 access command reg
    setb p2.1    ;R/w=1 read command reg
;read command reg and check busy flag
back:    clr p2.2    ;E=0 for low to high pulse
    setb p2.2    ;E=1 low to high pulse
    jb p1.7,back    ;stay until busy flag=0
    ret        ;return

i said that we made a very small mistake and we were spending a week in it. the mistake is that,we gave +5V
to VEE pin, we need to vary it as we vary contrast in TV. But, we thought we made mistake in the program and we were checking the program for 5 days
so, always view the problem in various angle, that will give solution quickly...

Pythagorean triplet


A Pythagorean triplet is a set of three natural numbers, a < b < c, for which,
a^(2) + b^(2) = c^(2)
For example, 3^(2) + 4^(2) = 9 + 16 = 25 = 5^(2).
There exists exactly one Pythagorean triplet for which a + b + c = 1000.
Find the product abc.
void main()
 long int a,b,c,as,bs,cs;
      printf("a=%ld,b=%ld,c=%ld\t as=%ld,bs=%ld,cs=%ld\tproduct=%ld\n",a,b,c,as,bs,cs,a*b*c);



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prime number


By listing the first six prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, and 13, we can see that the 6^(th) prime is 13.
What is the 1001^(st) prime number?
void main()
 long int i,j,prime,count=0;
    printf("%ld is prime\n",i);
  printf("count is %ld",count);

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Differance between sum square and square sum


The sum of the squares of the first ten natural numbers is,
1^(2) + 2^(2) + ... + 10^(2) = 385
The square of the sum of the first ten natural numbers is,
(1 + 2 + ... + 10)^(2) = 55^(2) = 3025
Hence the difference between the sum of the squares of the first ten natural numbers and the square of the sum is 3025 − 385 = 2640.
Find the difference between the sum of the squares of the first one hundred natural numbers and the square of the sum.
void main()
 long int i,sum=0,sq=0;
 printf("sum sq=%ld,sq=%ld,diff=%ld",sum*sum,sq,(sum*sum)-sq);


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palindromic number

hello friends,
recently i have started working on projecteular.net which tests our programming skill... so i have created few programs... those codes are here..one after other
A palindromic number reads the same both ways. The largest palindrome made from the product of two 2-digit numbers is 9009 = 91 × 99.
Find the largest palindrome made from the product of two 3-digit numbers.

void main()
 long int d0,d3,d2,d1,d5,d4,i,j,l,max=0;;
// j=986689;
 printf("max is %ld",max);


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It is very often we hear 3G and 4G technology.. and we use to speak more about it.. but when some one ask us what is the technical work behind it? we will be blinking for it...
so being a electronic and communication engineer i shouldn't blinking so i learned few about it and that is here...
The first generation in mobile communication technology is analog communication..In 1983, the analog cell-phone standard called AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) was approved by the FCC and first used in Chicago. AMPS uses a range of frequencies between 824 megahertz (MHz) and 894 MHz for analog cell phones.
The transmit and receive frequencies of each voice channel are separated by 45 MHz to keep them from interfering with each other. Each carrier has 395 voice channels, as well as 21 data channels to use for housekeeping activities like registration and paging.

A version of AMPS known as Narrow band Advanced Mobile Phone Service (NAMPS) incorporates some digital technology to allow the system to carry about three times as many calls as the original version. Even though it uses digital technology, it is still considered analog. AMPS and NAMPS only operate in the 800-MHz band and do not offer many of the features common in digital cellular service, such as e-mail and Web browsing.
This uses FDMA (frequency division multiple access) -FDMA separates the spectrum into distinct voice channels by splitting it into uniform chunks of bandwidth.

This second generation in mobile communication technology is digital communication.GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications: originally from Groupe Sp├ęcial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile telephony systems in the world.  the world’s most widely used cell phone technology. Cell phones use a cell phone service carrier’s GSM network by searching for cell phone towers in the nearby area.
GSM operates in the 900-MHz and 1800-MHz bands in Europe and Asia and in the 850-MHz and 1900-MHz (sometimes referred to as 1.9-GHz) band in the United States.
it uses TDMA- Time Division Multiple Access:
Narrow band means "channels" in the traditional sense. Each conversation gets the radio for one-third of the time. This is possible because voice data that has been converted to digital information is compressed so that it takes up significantly less transmission space. Therefore, TDMA has three times the capacity of an analog system using the same number of channels. TDMA systems operate in either the 800-MHz (IS-54) or 1900-MHz (IS-136) frequency bands.
CDMA-Code Division Multiple Access:
Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method utilized by various radio communication technologies. It should not be confused with the mobile phone standards called cdmaOne and CDMA2000 (which are often referred to as simply CDMA), which use CDMA as an underlying channel access method.
CDMA uses a “spread-spectrum” technique whereby electromagnetic energy is spread to allow for a signal with a wider bandwidth. This allows multiple people on multiple cell phones to be “multiplexed” over the same channel to share a bandwidth of frequencies.
With CDMA technology, data and voice packets are separated using codes and then transmitted using a wide frequency range. Since more space is often allocated for data with CDMA, this standard became attractive for 3G high-speed mobile Internet use. While CDMA and GSM compete head on in terms of higher bandwidth speed (i.e. for surfing the mobile Web), GSM has more complete global coverage due to roaming and international roaming contracts.

GSM technology tends to cover rural areas in the U.S. more completely than CDMA. Over time, CDMA won out over less advanced TDMA technology, which was incorporated into more advanced GSM.
3G :
3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology.3G allows simultaneous use of speech and data services and higher data rates (at least 200 kbit/s peak bit rate to fulfill to IMT-2000 specification). Today's 3G systems can offer practice of up to 14.0 Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8 Mbit/s on the uplink. since the bandwidth is high,greater network capacity and rate of data transfer is also high..
The first pre-commercial 3G network launched in May 2001 by NTT DoCoMo in Japan. The network was branded as FOMA. Following the first pre-commercial launch, NTT DoCoMo again made history with the first commercial launch of 3G in Japan on Oct. 1, 2001.
EDGE-Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution 
EDGE  is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE is considered a 3G radio technology and is part of ITU's 3G definition. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003— initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States.

4G, which is also known as “beyond 3G” or “fourth-generation” cell phone technology, refers to the entirely new evolution and a complete 3G replacement in wireless communications.
Just as data-transmission speeds increased from 2G to 3G, the leap from 3G to 4G again promises even higher data rates than existed in previous generations. 4G promises voice, data and high-quality multimedia in real-time (“streamed”) form all the time and anywhere.
Various standardization and regulatory bodies estimate the launch of 4G networks commercially between 2012 and 2015.





Today, every human has an extra organ called cell phone... which is of variety of models and size...i say it as organ since it is being with us all around the clock..
 Every one is using it but very few know how it works..
as i said already i love to again knowledge... i put little effort to understand it... here is that...


This is the advanced version of radio,but sophisticated and secured one... As like as the radio each network operator gets their own unique carrier frequency with which they modulate the signals...

  • A cell-phone carrier typically gets 832 radio frequencies to use in a city.
  • Each cell phone uses two frequencies(one to receive and other to transmit) per call -- a duplex channel -- so there are typically 395 voice channels per carrier. (The other 42 frequencies are used for control channels -- more on this later.)      
The carrier chops up the city into cells. Each cell is typically sized at about 10 square miles (26 square kilometers). Cells are normally thought of as hexagons on a big hexagonal grid, like this:

The about 395 channels are divided into 7. each cell has about 56 channels (i.e. 56 people can be talking on their cell phone at a same time). the cell around will not have this same 56 channel.. but the cell outside the cells around the center can have the same this same 56 channel.. this is to avoid the repetition of channel

when the customer goes from one cell to another the signal to the current base station will diminish and the base station of the next cell will find the arrival of other channel with in its range and the two base stations coordinate with each other through the MTSO, and at some point, your phone gets a signal on a control channel telling it to change frequencies. This hand off switches your phone to the new cell.

Let's say you're on the phone and you move from one cell to another -- but the cell you move into is covered by another service provider, not yours. Instead of dropping the call, it'll actually be handed off to the other service provider.this is roaming

once the mobile is switched ON... our mobile will search for same SID(system identification number).. once the same SID is found, it will setup a connection with the base station using the control channels.. else it will say "NO SERVES" or " NO NETWORK COVERAGE"..

our mobile will communicate with base station using the control channels about call set up and channel changing.. for this communication sets up only if our phone system identification number(SID) should match with the base station SID... always there will be a connection between our mobile phone and the base station..with this the mobile telephone switching office(MTSO) will maintain a database of their customers..

once a call arrives.. the MTSO will find the location of the specific customer with the help of the data base.. and divert the call to the nearest base station... then the base station will allocates two frequency(one freq. to receive and another to send the date) which is support by the customer's phone.. then the call will be transferred..

when the customer wants to make a call the reverse operation will be done..

Cell Phone Codes

Electronic Serial Number (ESN) - a unique 32-bit number programmed into the phone when it is manufactured

Mobile Identification Number
(MIN) - a 10-digit number derived from your phone's number

System Identification Code
(SID) - a unique 5-digit number that is assigned to each carrier by the FCC

While the ESN is considered a permanent part of the phone, both the MIN and SID codes are programmed into the phone when you purchase a service plan and have the phone activated.

Hosanna lyrics vinnaithaandi varuvaaaya

The lyrics of the most wonder full............
HOSANNA ........
Yen idhayam udaithaai norungavey

en maruidhayam tharume nee udaikave

Hoooo .... hosanna hosanna
Hoooo .... hosanna hosanna ..

Andha neram andhi neram kanpaarthu kanhdalagi ponaneram edho aache
Oh vaanam thendi vanhdachu appavin thittuellam kaatrodu poye poche
Hosanna en vaasal thandi ponaale
Hosanna verondrum seiyamale
nan aadi pogriren
aval pona pinbu endhan nejai thedipogiren

Ho ...sanna ...
Vazhvukum pakkam vandhen Ho .saana...
savumkum pakkam nindren Ho .saana..
enendral kadhal enben   Ho .saana..

Everybody wanna know be like be like,
I really wanna be here with you..
Is that enough to say that
we are made for each other is all that is *Hosaana* true

Hosaanna... be there when you are calling i will be there..
Hosaanna... be the life the whole life i share..
i never wanna be the same..
its time we re arrange i take a step,
you take a step and me calling out to you...

Helloooo... Hellooooo... Helloooo oooo
Ho.. Hosaanna... Hosaanna..
Ho.... Ho.. Hosaanna... Hosaanna.. Ho... Ho....

Vanna vanna pattu pochi poothedi poothedi
angum ingum alaihindradhey
oh sottu sottai thottu poga
vagam ondru ondruengngo nagarkindrathey
Hosaana - pattu poochi vandhacha ?
Hosaana - megam unnai thottacha ?
Kilinjal aagirai nan kulandhai agiren
nan unnai alli vaithu pothi kolkiren

Helloooo... Hellooooo... Helloooo oooo
Hosaana enmeedu anbu kolla
Hosaana ennodu serdhu sella
Hosaana hmm endru sollum podhu
Ho .. Hosaana....

Yen idhayam udaithaai norungavey
en maruidhayam tharume nee udaikave


here is my second paper with my friennd Rajesh khanna... EMBEDDED BASED AUTO MOBILE COLLISION PREVENTION... this paper is entirely different from my last paper... expect the title everything is on our own... it is completely our paper... we took nearly a weak to complete this paper... while working on this paper we learnt many recent concepts like range finder, how to select controller, braking systems, ABS, etc... it was very enjoyable and interesting to us...
More important is that we won second prize for this in ANNA UNIVERSITY,coimbatore...
here is that interesting paper for you


Most of the automobile accidents could be avoided if the brake had been applied at proper time and at proper distance. In this paper we are using embedded system which could be embedded in the automobile to remove the driver’s reaction time from the situation. The system, consisting of controllers, which analyzes possible accident situations based on the vehicle separation distance, their relative velocity and a static friction coefficient that represents the road conditions. The controller determines the sufficient brake pressure required to prevent collisions while providing a smooth ride for the vehicle’s passengers. 

Our work is to design controller to automate and optimize the application of brake pressure to an automobile’s brakes at proper time. So first requirement implies that the two vehicles should never have any physical contact, while the second one implies that the brakes should be used only in the amount necessary, e.g., they should not undergo large excursions to make small adjustments.

In general, if the automobile in front decelerate, then the vehicle behind it must decelerate to avoid the collision.  Here, the controller tracks the vehicle and have its velocity as reference and applies the appropriate brake pressure at the proper time. So, the controller automatically decelerates to match the velocity of the tracked vehicle and avoid a collision. 

The parameters that we took to avoid collision are
  •  separation between the two vehicles
  • velocity with which they approach each other
  • surface conditions
  For calculating these three parameter, Laser range finders could provide the first two measurements, while wheel-slip sensors currently used for automobile Traction Control Systems or Anti-lock Breaking systems (ABS) could estimate could estimate the third measurement.  

we have three modules, they are
  •       distance finder
  •       intelligent control module
  •       braking system 
here,the distance finder finds the distance between the vehicles and reports to the controller.The controller processes data and  calculates the percentage of braking. this braking is coupled with actual braking of the ABS unit..

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Hi everyone,myself Alagappan...electronic and communication engg. student... living in madurai... interested in everything... want to achieve something great in my lifetime...


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